The texts of
laws of the Republic of Kalmykia and of other legal documents are published in the state
referendum papers are drawn up in Russian, but in accordance with a decision of the
Electoral Commission of the Republic of Kalmykia, these papers can be published in Kalmyk
alongside with Russian.
languages of the Republic of Kalmykia are used in the activities of the administrative
authorities, local government bodies, enterprises, offices and organizations including
record-keeping, texts of forms, stamps, seals, sigh boards, official papers such as
passports, certificates of birth, marriage and death, etc. Even the products made by the
enterprises of the Republic of Kalmykia are supposed to be supplied with labels,
specifications and tags in Kalmyk and Russian.
proceedings and record keeping in the courts and judicial authorities are carried through
in Kalmyk and Russian.
newspapers and magazines of the Republic, TV and radio programmes are maintained in Kalmyk
Place names and
inscriptions, road signs and given in the Kalmyk and Russian languages.
The Language Act
regulates all spheres of language functioning apart from the use of the languages of the
peoples of Kalmykia in interpersonal.
The Act states
that the Republic of Kalmykia is the sole national-administrative formation of the Kalmyk
people and that care for the preservation, revival and development of the Kalmyk language
as the most essential of its national characteristics and the basis of its spiritual
culture is the responsibility of the administrative authorities of the Republic of
Kalmykia. This is realized through the official recognition of its status, by creating
conditions for its active use in the state and public spheres of life, by promoting its
prestige, standardization and spread.
The Language Act
also states that the power of state support is demonstrated in guarantees it gives to
provide the social, economic and legal protection of languages. The social protection
presupposes a scientifically based language policy aimed at preserving, developing and
studying the languages. The economic protection insure a special line in the budget or
other financial form of support of state and scientific programmes. The legal protection
of languages presupposes the responsibility of juridical and physical persons for breaking
the language laws of the Republic.
and development presupposes some corpus planning. If a language is use for new functions
that it has not previously served, then corpus planning may need to be adapted or
elaborated to make it suitable for the new communicative functions. Being announced as one
of the state languages Kalmyk was supposed to be used in some new social domains as public
administration, governmental services, law-making, economy, etc. It means corpus planning
of the Kalmyk language should be developed to let it fulfill these new functions. Cooper
(1989) identifies the following three aspects of corpus planning: standardization,
modernization and graphization.
language is considered to be a standard one, it has standardized grammar, phonetic, lexic
and stylistic norms. But anyway the language reform started at the end of the 80s brought
to discussion the issues like the influence of the Russian language, which resulted in
numerous borrowings when nearly all the neologisms were of Russian origin. Linguistic
purism became one of the targets of modern standardization process. The striving for
language purism is an important aspect of minority languages' revival and promotion.
According to Baschaeva the compilers of the explanatory dictionary of the Kalmyk language
should meet the requirement of language purism. It is evident that the Kalmyk language,
particularly the language of mass media, abounds in borrowing, which can easily be
avoided. Any thing or phenomenon concerning various spheres of human life can be signified
by means of the mother tongue. Moreover, Kalmyk offers good possibilities for
word-formation, being a language of the agglutinative type (Baschaeva, 1999).